Timeline: History of the Mellrichstadt Jews from the beginning up to the end of the community caused by the Shoa


1283

March 31, 1283: Four Jews are killed by being burned at the stake. Their names are according to the source:
R. Nechemja, son of R. Jechiel.
R. Elieser, son of the martyr R. Joez.
R. Samuel, son of R. Jechiel
R. Isak, son of R. Gerschom.

(Source: Siegmund Salfeld: Das Martyrologium des Nürnberger Memorbuches, Berlin 1898, (Quellen zur Geschichte der Juden in Deutschland III) S. 144.)

1298

The so called Beef Pogrom
A knight from Röttingen on the Tauber travels through Franconia, starting at Röttingen, down to Nuremburg and medieval Bavaria down to Austria, ransacking and murdering, under the pretence that Jews had allegedly done disgrace to the consecrated wafer.

(Source: Heinrich Graetz: Geschichte der Juden, Reprint der Ausgabe letzter Hand, Leipzig 1897, Band 7, S. 232.)

Mellrichstadt is mentioned as a place where blood had been shed, too.

(Source: Salfeld (Anm. 1) S. 232.)

1412

A writ of protection was granted to two Jewish money jobbers by the Würzburg bishop Johann of Brunn (1412 – 1440). The Jews lived at Mellrichstadt.

(Source: Arye Maimon, Mordechai Breuer, Jacov Guggenheim, Hrsg., Germania Judaica Band III, Tübingen 1995, S. 857 f.)

1557

At an assembly the rural towns and the bishopric administrations, including Würzburg and Mellrichstadt, ask the bishop to expel the Jews from the district.

(Source: Hans-Peter Baum: Quellen zu Judenverfolgungen von 1147 bis 1938. In: Zeugnisse jüdischer Geschichte in Unterfranken, hg. Von Ulrich Wagner, Würzburg 1987, S. 44 – 48.)

1575/76

Bishop Julius Echter (1573 – 1617) expels the Jews from the bishopric.

(Source: Ebd.)

1646

At Mellrichstadt four Jews live there again.

(Source: Stadtarchiv Mellrichstadt, Rechnungen von 1646, D I 2/1.)

1699

Three Jews live at Mellrichstadt, protected by the bishopric:
„A man, including his wife, 3 children, 1 schoolmaster, 1 churl, 1 maidservant.
Mayer, including his wife. 1 child. 1 churl. 1 maidservant.
Löwen (widow), 2 children.”

(Source: Staatsarchiv Würzburg, Gebrechenamt IV W 273.)

1700

Only two Jewish families live at Mellrichstadt. One had moved.
-Mennlein Jew.
-Mayer Jew.

(Source: Stadtarchiv Mellrichstadt, Rechnungen 1700, D I 15/1.)

1702

Again, three Jews live at Mellrichstadt:
– Männlein Jew.
– Mayer Jew.
– Feyst Jew.

(Source: Ebd. Rechnungen 1702, D I  16/2.)

1707

Three protected Jews live at Mellrichstadt:
– Männlein Jew.
– Mayer Jew.
– Feyst Jew.
– Hirsch Jew.

(Source: Ebd. Rechnungen 1707 DI 20/2.)

1740

In January 1740 Mellrichstadt reports a list of the Jewish population to the bishopric of Würzburg:
“3 menages, married, including a widow and 3 sons of unmarried status.”

(Source: Staatsarchiv Würzburg, HV Ms. F. 491.)

1803

The Bavarian Electoral Prince has a complete list made of the Jews who live in the prince-bishopric of Wü.
At this time there are 8 Jewish families at Mellrichstadt, 37 persons altogether.

1. Michel Mandel – livestock dealer and peddler.
2. Moses Mandel – selling different kinds of goods.
3. Gerson David – livestock dealer.
4. Feist Herz – selling different kinds of goods.
5. Löb Herz – selling different kinds of goods.
6. Majer Seligmann – selling different kinds of goods.
7. Hirsch Herz – selling different kinds of goods.
8. Anschel Herz – selling different kinds of goods.

(Source: Staatsarchiv Würzburg, Wzr. Gebrechenamt VII W 154/1606.)

1811 – 1817

In these years the number of Jews remains constant. 8 families live there, about 50 persons.

1816/17

In Lower Franconia the 1813 Bavarian Edict on Jews is inured. It makes it easier for the Jewish population to conduct a business, to choose a profession or an apprenticeship. The so called “Matrikelparagraph”, however, sets a limit to the number of Jews in Bavaria.
Moreover they are not allowed to choose their residence freely. The first “Matrikel”-lists are made.

1817

The “Matrikel“-list of Mellrichstadt’s Jews, with the names they had to accept:

1. Michel Mandel now called Michel Friedmann.
2. Moses Mandel now called Moses Mandel.
3. Gerson David now called Gerson Sackie.
4. Feist Herz now called Herz Heinemann.
5. Löb Herz now called Löb Heinemann.
6. Maier Seligmann now called Maier Reinberger.
7. Hirsch Herz now called Hirsch Heinemann.
8. Anschel Herz now called Anschel Heinemann.

Additionally are mentioned Samuel Moses, now called Samuel Rimpert, and Mendel Moses, now called Mendel Mandel.

(Source: Dirk Rosenstock: Die unterfränkischen Judenmatrikeln von 1817, hg. Von  Ulrich Wagner, Würzburg 2008. S. 120.)

1829

List of Jewish families from April 8, 1829. They are registered as protected Jews.

1. Michel Friedmann,
2. Hirsch Heinemann,
3. Löw Heinemann,
4. Emanuel Mantel,
5. Moses Mantel,
6. Mayer Reinberger,
7. Sophonias Rimpert,
8. Gerson Sacki

(Source: Stadtarchiv Mellrichstadt, Statistische Notizen von Mellrichstadt, E I  1 / 2.)

1861

The „Matrikel Paragraph“ is repealed, the Bavarian Jews are granted freedom of movement. Many Jews move to the towns where they quickly grow in numbers – same at Mellrichstadt.

1865

The Jewish community makes an application for a mikvah, the Jewish ritual bath.
This is denied by the town of Mellrichstadt on July 24, 1865.
A second application is made in October 1865, which again is denied by the town administration.

(Source: Stadtarchiv Mellrichstadt, Akten der Gemeindeverwaltung,  Betr: Verhältnisse der Juden 1829 – 1869, E I 3 /34.)

1866

German War from June 21 to July 26.

Jewish belligerents were:

Jakob Friedmann, born on August 1, 1840, at Mellrichstadt, died on December 29, 1922, at Mellrichstadt.
Levi Lindau, born on August 19, 1845, at Bebra, died on November 4, 1922, at Mellrichstadt.
At the time of his war service Levi Lindau still lived at Mühlfeld as a member of the Jewish community. After 1900 he moved to Mellrichstadt.

(Source: Stadtarchiv Mellrichstadt, Militärische Angelegenheiten, E I  9/28.)

1867

The census of houses and buildings draws up a list of these Jewish house owners:

1. Friedmann Isaak,
2. Friedmann Jakob,
3. Goldberg Max,
4. Goldschmidt Moses,
5. Herz Heinemann,
6. Jette (Ida) Heinemann,
7. Herz Mantel,
8. Isaak Mantel,
9. Löw Neuberger,
10. Samuel Neuberger,
11. Löb Sacki,
12. Simson Sacki,
13. Nathan Stern, widow.

(Source: Stadtarchiv Mellrichstadt, Häuser- und Gebäudezählung, E I 4/2.)

Jews from Mühlfeld, Willmars and from Westphalia had moved to Mellrichstadt.

The community didn’t have a synagogue, but they had a prayer room on the first floor of the house number 297 (today 39 Langgasse, a newly built house).
The deceased are buried at the regional cemetery at Kleinbardorf.

1868

On June 3, 1868, the district office at Mellrichstadt allows to build a mikvah.

1869

The assembly of the Jewish community at Mellrichstadt decides to install a cemetery of their own at the area called “Kniebrecher”.

(Source: CAHJP, Israelitische Kultusgemeinde Mellrichstadt, Friedhofsbuch, HM 438.)

1871

On November 2, 1871, the field meant as the facility for the cemetery is judicially accredited to the Jewish community. This is fixed in the land registry of the Royal Revenue Office.

(Source: Ebd.)

The first funeral takes place in 1872.

1870/71

Franco-German War

Belligerents:
Levi Lindau, born on August 19, 1845 in Bebra, died on November 4, 1922 at Mellrichstadt.
At the time of his war service Levi Lindau still lived at Mühlfeld as a member of the Jewish community. After 1900 he moved to Mellrichstadt.

(Source:  Stadtarchiv Mellrichstadt, Militärische Angelegenheiten,  E I  9/28.)

1872

Teacher Elias Ottensoser founds a private “Trade and Teaching Institute“. It is also attended by Catholic and Protestant students.

(Source: StA WÜ, Regierungsabgabe 1943/45, Akt. Nr. 13407.)

1873

As the Jewish community has grown they plan to build a synagogue. The praying room hitherto used had turned out to be too small.

(Source: StA WÜ, LRA Mellrichstadt, 627.)

1881

On September 16, the new synagogue is solemnly consecrated by Dr. Adler from Kassel, Landrabbiner.

(Source: CAHJP N11/44a)

1881

The Jewish community, paying 3.000 Marks, purchases the school for boys that had become too small. The plan was to use it as a Jewish school building.

(Source: Stadtarchiv Mellrichstadt, Stadtratsprotokolle des Stadtrats von Mellrichstadt 1875 – 1887, B I  12/4.)

1883

By the town of Mellrichstadt, the Jewish community is allowed to build a separate hall next to the synagogue. This was used to shed the hearses there.

(Source: Stadtarchiv Mellrichstadt, Stadtratsprotokolle des Stadtrats von Mellrichstadt 1875 – 1887, B I  12/4.)

1905

The town community of Mellrichstadt has 2.014 inhabitants, including 156 Jews.

Chairmen of the Jewish community:
Maier Adler, Louis Katz, Lazarus Ottensoser.

Viktor Gottlieb is the teacher, cantor, and shochet. He is teacher of 10 boys and 10 girls at the Jewish school building.

The community belongs to the district rabbinate of Kissingen.
District rabbi: Dr. S. Bamberger.

Male Chewra: Chairman Levi Lindau.
Female Chewra: Chairwoman Sabine Dannenbaum.

(Source: Statistisches Jahrbuch deutscher Juden, 17. Jahrgang, 1905.)

1910

Census:
2176 inhabitants (of Mellrichstadt), among them 165 Jews.

(Source: Baruch Z. Ophir und Falk Wiesemann, Die jüdischen Gemeinden in Bayern 1918 – 1945, Oldenbourg Verlag München, Wien 1979.)

1912

Banker Max Stern is elected for the town council.
He endows a fountain at the church wall.

(Source: Stadtarchiv Mellrichstadt, Ratsprotokolle 1900 – 1912, B II 1/19.)

On January 7, 1918, he is nominated as a Bavarian Councillor of Commerce.

1912

Nathan Stern, born at Mellrichstadt in 1871, later living at Chemnitz and Berlin, endows a fountain in honor of the Bavarian Prince Regent Luitpold. The fountain is erected at the market place of Mellrichstadt. For this donation Stern is honored as a honorary citizen of Mellrichstadt.
Moreover, Prince Regent Luitpold nominates Stern as a Bavarian Councillor of Commerce.

(Source: Ebd.)

1914

The First World War begins.
37 Jews join the military forces.
At the end of the war 12 were killed in action or had died from their wounds.

1924

The cattle dealer Raphael Neuberger is elected for the town council.

(Source: Stadtarchiv Mellrichstadt, Ratsprotokolle 1922 – 1927, B II 3/1a.)

1925

Census:
2178 inhabitants, among them 151 Jews.

(Source: Baruch Z. Ophir  und Falk Wiesemann, Die jüdischen Gemeinden in Bayern 1918 – 1945, Oldenbourg Verlag München, Wien 1979.)

1929

The ironmonger Max Lindau is elected for the town council.

(Source: Stadtarchiv Mellrichstadt, Ratsprotokolle 1927 – 1931, B II 4/1a/-.)

1933

In March the town councilman Max Lindau is forced to resign.

At the meeting of the town council on August 14 the decision is made to dispossess Nathan Stern the honor of a honorary citizen.

(Source: Stadtarchiv Mellrichstadt, Ratsprotokolle 1932 – 1935.)

1933

Census: 2302 inhabitants, among them 126 Jews.
Chairman of the community: Guido Prager.
Teacher: Jakob Schloss.

(Source: Stadtarchiv Mellrichstadt, Jüdische Kultusgemeinden,  EII 3 12/24.)

1935

Number of community members: 115.
Chairman of the community: Guido Prager.
Teacher: Jakob Schloss.

(Source: Ebd.)

1936

The community has 85 members.

(Source: Baruch Z. Ophir und Falk Wiesemann, Die jüdischen Gemeinden in Bayern 1918 – 1945, Oldenbourg Verlag München, Wien 1979.)

1937

The community has 75 members.

(Source: Ebd.)

1937

The Jewish children are not allowed to attend the primary school of Mellrichstadt any longer. Beginning in November 1937, they attend the Jewish school at Unsleben.

(Source: Ebd.)

1938

The community has 69 members.

(Source: Ebd.)

1938

On September 30, 1938, hundreds of persons destroy the synagogue at Mellrichstadt.

In the night of the 9th to the 10th November the fountain once bestowed by Nathan Stern is demolished at the market place.

In this pogrom night all Jewish house owners are arrested and thrown into prison at Bad Neustadt/Saale.
Only after agreeing to the sale of their houses they are set free.

Adolf Blum is also forced to sell his house; this is why he hangs himself.
Those Jews who are not set free from imprisonment are transported to the Dachau concentration camp (KZ).

(Source: Ebd.)

1939

The town of Mellrichstadt has purchased the synagogue for a very small amount of money. The destruction of the synagogue is ordered.

(Source: Staatsarchiv Würzburg, LRA Mellrichstadt, 1927.)

1939

Census:
2312 inhabitants, among them 61 Jews.

(Source: Baruch Z. Ophir und Falk Wiesemann, Die jüdischen Gemeinden in Bayern 1918 – 1945, Oldenbourg Verlag München, Wien 1979.)

1940

The last Jewish teacher Jakob Schloss gives notice of his departure for Frankfurt/Main on September 18, 1940.

(Source: Einwohnermelderegister Mellrichstadt, 01.01.1939 – 31.04.1945.)

In Frankfurt he commits suicide on December 6, 1940.

(Source: Auskunft vom Institut für Stadtgeschichte Frankfurt/Main.)

1933 – 1942

82 Jews leave the town in the course of these years.

(Source: Baruch Z. Ophir und Falk Wiesemann, Die jüdischen Gemeinden in Bayern 1918 – 1945, Odenbourg Verlag, München, Wien 1979.)

1942

On March 13, 1941, an elderly Jewish married couple gives notice of their departure to an old age asylum at Würzburg.

(Source: Einwohnermelderegister Mellrichstadt, 01.01.1939 – 31.04.1945.)

On March 30 and 31, 1942, seven Jews from Mellrichstadt are forced to move to a Würzburg old age asylum.
They are gathered there for the transportation to Theresienstadt.

On Apri8l 24, 1942, 24 Jews are transported to Würzburg in a passenger train, starting at 04.18 hours.
The next day from Würzburg, they are transported to Krasnystaw. There their lives are ended in an extermination camp.

(Source: Staatsarchiv Würzburg, LRA Mellrichstadt, 1544.)

On May 20, 1942, the last four Jews from Mellrichstadt are transported to Würzburg in an old age asylum.
There two women die.

On September 23, 1942, nine Jews from Mellrichstadt are transported from Würzburg to the ghetto of Theresienstadt. All of them meet their deaths there.

(Source: Staatsarchiv Würzburg, Gestapostelle Würzburg, 18879.)

1942

June 20, 1942: During the summer call-over of the local group of the Mellrichstadt NSDAP the local group leader Christian Schumann announces cheerfully that now Mellrichstadt is free of any Jews.

(Source: Rhön- und Streubote Mellrichstadt, Nr. 143, 70. Jahrgang, Bericht vom Montag, 22. Juni 1942.)